作者:瑞士贝宁格公司Benninger AG

J. Str?hle,C.N. Guruprasad, H.Gehrlein

9240 Uzwil / Switzerland


New Development in Open Width Processing of Knitted goods

平幅整理针织物的最新技术发展


1 Summary概述


Benninger can now satisfy the ever changing demands of the fashion industry and of quality conscious customers by being able to offer suitable machinery for the open width processing of knitted fabrics which ensure high quality with minimal or no defects. Today Benninger offers four main lines for open width processing of knitted goods. Open width washing plants, open width bleaching plants, open width mercerizing plants and open width dyeing centres for cold pad batch dyeing

瑞士贝宁格公司现在能提供合适的机器设备用于平幅生产高质量的最少疵甚至无疵的针织物,从而能满足时装业以及关注产品质量的用户的日益变化的要求。贝宁格提供的这些设备有四条线,即:平幅水洗机、平幅煮漂机、平幅丝光机、以及平幅冷轧堆染色机。


2 Introduction前言


The world-wide demand for knit goods is growing. Knitted fabrics are increasingly being used for outer and underwear and are also enjoying greater acceptance amongst various consumers. The very fact that knitted fabrics are being used for outerwear explains the higher demands placed on the quality as well as the appearance of the fabrics in order to meet the ever-changing fashion trends.

目前全世界对针织物的需求日益增长,越来越多的针织物被用来制成内衣及外衣并得到不同消费者的接受和喜爱。从针织物被用于外衣可以特别看出,为了满足日益变化的时装潮流要求,针织物必需具备优良的质量和外观。


Although most processing of knitted fabrics today is carried out in tubular form, the need to process in the open width form is becoming increasingly necessary in order to satisfy the quality requirements. This article deals with the various machine concepts being offered by Benninger for the open width processing of knitted fabrics.

虽然目前大部分针织物仍以圆筒式加工为主,但对平幅生产满足质量的需求却日益增加了。本文就贝宁格提供的各种针织物平幅加工设备作一介绍。

3. Pre-treatment of cotton and blends. 纯棉及其混纺织物的前处理

In order to achieve a high quality fabric, a thorough preparation to improve its absorbency as well as whiteness is in most cases imperative. In view of this, the pre-treatment assumes great importance and is the primary step. A typical machine layout for pre-treatment of 100%cotton, as well as cotton and elastane blends, is shown in picture 1.

为获得高质量的织物,均匀充分的前准备从而改善织物吸湿性和白度就变得必不可少,从这个意义上讲,前处理就显得极其重要,也就成为主要的加工工序。下图1所示即为一个典型的加工100%纯棉及棉/弹混纺织物的前处理机器排列图。


Picture 1: Pre- treatment range 图1:前处理机

Generally a range is comprised of a suitable entry followed by a pre-washing zone. Here, spinning oils as well as the other impurities present in the grey knitted fabric are thoroughly washed out and removed.

通常这台机器由一合适的进布及后面的预水洗区组成。在这里,纺丝油及针织坯布中的其他杂质被彻底清除。

Subsequent to the pre-washing zone, impregnation of the fabric with scouring and bleaching chemicals takes place. Thereafter steaming occurs in a steamer specially executed for knitted fabrics which is followed by series of washers. Then finally neutralization and rinsing takes place before the fabric reaches the outlet.

在预水洗区之后,织物浸渍以煮练剂和漂白剂。然后再对针织物进行汽蒸及一系列后道水洗。最后,出布前再进行中和、清洗。

Knitted fabrics are extremely sensitive to tension and therefore require careful handling during processing. This means that tensions exerted by the machinery on the fabric must be kept to a minimum. This is the reason for the special design of the entry to the range which consists of a centre driven unwinding arrangement. The unwinding tension on the fabric is independent to the size of the batch. The fabric enters the pre-washing zone with a constant low tension which is maintained throughout the process.

针织物对张力极为敏感,因此加工过程中需特别注意。这意味着机器带给织物的张力必须最小。这也是机器的进布需配备主动的中央退卷装置的原因。这样,退卷张力不受布卷大小影响,织物以恒定的低张力进入预水洗并在整个过程中得以保持。

The pre-washing zone includes one or more Trikoflex washers depending on the production and speed of the machine. Demineralization chemicals can be introduced in the pre-washing zone to remove loose metals and residual iron left over from the knitting process. There are two methods of demineralization.

预洗区包括一个或多个转鼓水洗机,这取决于产品和车速。脱矿质水洗也可在此预洗区进行,可去除织造时遗留的脱落的金属件和多余的铁质。有两种脱矿质方法。

–Demineralization in the Trikoflex washing compartment at 60°C to 80°C for approx. 30 to 60

sec.

–Impregnation with demineralization chemicals followed by a small reaction chamber at room

temperature for 5 min.

–在Trikoflex转鼓水洗机中以60°C to 80°C热水洗30至60秒

–先浸渍脱矿质助剂,然后在小反应箱内室温下保持5分钟

The impregnation with scouring and bleaching chemicals is carried out in a small Trikoflex LT-S impregnation chamber followed by steaming in a specially designed steamer containing a roller bed dwelling zone. The fabric is passed, in a so-called free run, through a steam lock into the steamer and is immediately brought up to the reaction temperature. A folding mechanism plaits the fabric onto the roller bed. Depositing and draw off during the entire process occurs under stable pre-defined conditions.

浸渍煮练剂和漂白剂可在小的Trikoflex LT-S浸渍槽内进行。然后在经特别设计的汽蒸箱的辊床上堆置汽蒸。织物经一段自由布段后从汽封口进入蒸箱,并被迅速加热到反应温度。折布装置将织物有序地堆置于辊床上,在整个汽蒸过程中织物放下和提起均在预先设定的状态下稳定进行。

Each chemical has a station consisting of a feed pump, inductive flow meter and control valve. This ensures the reproducibility of chemical quantities.

每一种化学助剂都有一个工作站,包括有输液泵、电感式流量计、以及控制阀,这就保证了助剂用量的再现性。

The concentrated chemicals are fed into the circulation pipe of the Trikoflex LT-S, where by thorough mixing is effected. The set point is calculated according to the recipe entered (ml chemicals / kg fabric) and depends on the fabric flow (running meter weight x speed).

具有一定浓度的化学助剂被送入Trikoflex LT-S 的循环管内,在这里被充分有效地混合。送液量根据输入的工艺配方计算出来(毫升助剂公斤织物), 它取决于织物流量 (单位米克重X实际车速)。

4. Open width mercerizing range for mercerization of cotton and cotton elastic blends

纯棉及棉弹混纺织物的平幅丝光机

Due to its versatile design, the Benninger mercerizing machine BEN-DIMENSA masters the special structure, load and tension instability of knitted fabrics brilliantly, so much so that even single jersey fabrics can be run on the BEN-DIMENSA without any problems. The machine has a specialized entry system (as described under Pre-treatment). The low tension and gentle treatment is also ensured by the ratio metered AC drive. Each drive position can be adjusted up or down by 20%.

由于其多功能的设计,贝宁格丝光机BEN-DIMENSA能极佳地控制住针织物特有的结构、张力及伸长方面的波动, 即使是单面针织物也可在贝宁格丝光机上毫无问题地运行。该机具有特别的进布系统(如前处理机中描述的)。其速比控制的交流传动系统也确保了低张力和轻柔处理。每一个马达位置均可上下调速20%。

The fabrics are impregnated in a short impregnating zone followed by dwelling in the chainless

section of the machine. A minimum tension is exerted on the fabric during transportation in the chainless dwelling zone. The tension is controlled by the ratio metered AC drives located at the fabric transportation drums. The dwelling zone is followed by a vertical return pin chain / stenter section, where the fabric is uniformly stretched during the gradual removal of the caustic content. This means an initial stabilization of the fabric already begins in the chain zone followed by further stabilization in the chainless section of the machine. Fabrics stabilized in this manner are subsequently washed and neutralised in Trikoflex washing compartment.

织物在浸渍槽内浸碱,随后在直辊区膨化反应。在此直辊反应区织物能以最小的张力运行。织物张力控制是通过各送布辊上的交流马达的速比控制而进行的。膨化反应区后是垂直针板链拉幅段,在这里织物一边被逐步去碱,一边被均匀地拉幅。这就是说在针板拉幅区已经开始作初步的去碱稳定工作,进一步的去碱稳定则在其后的直辊区段进行。如此稳定后,织物在后道的Trikoflex松式水洗机上作清洗和中和。

The combination of the chain and chainless principles ensure the dimensional stability of the knitted fabric. The dimensions set during the processing are fixed and memorised permanently. The results after mercerising on the BEN -DIMENSA are representative of the final product and any deviation can be corrected immediately in the stenter frame.

这种直辊与针板链相结合的结构设计保证了针织物的稳定性。丝光过程使织物尺寸定型并永久记忆下来,经贝宁格BEN-DIMENSA丝光后的织物尺寸也就代表着最终产品尺寸,任何的偏差都能通过拉幅架迅速得以纠正。

The advantages of open width mercerising of knitted fabrics using the Ben-Dimensa are [1]:

–Constant stitch counts

–No differences in the number of wales over width

–Controllable lengthening up to +15% and shrinkage up to -10%

采用贝宁格BEN-DIMENSA平幅丝光针织物的优点是[1]:

–一致的线圈密度

–全门幅上纵行数无差异

–可控制伸长达+15%或超喂收缩达 -10%

Further, stitch thickening in the selvedge zones, which cause dark selvedges leading to quality loss and even rejects, are overcome in the BEN-DIMENSA as

–the lye in the selvedge is methodically extracted

–the fabric is positively guided throughout the stabilizing zone

而且,因布边线圈增厚产生深色边从而导致产品降等甚至遭退货的问题在贝宁格BEN-DIMENSA上也被克服,这是因为

–布边上的碱液被专用装置清除了

–在整个去碱稳定区织物始终被主动握持引导


Picture 2 : BEN – DIMENSA Mercerizing range for knitwear 图2:贝宁格针织物丝光机

5. Bicoflex dye padder for cold pad batch dyeing of open width knitted fabrics.

针织物平幅冷轧堆染色机用均匀轧车

The range depicted on the following photograph (Photo 1) comprises of a suitable entry unit provided with centrally driven unwinding unit as well as tension adjusting elements that ensure an even supply of fabric into the padder. The fabric, after having passed through the padder, is transported via feeding rollers to the batching system. Knitted fabrics are batched on an ‘A’ frame that is constantly moved away from its initial position opposite the padder in relation to the fabric build up on the batch roller.

下面图片所示的是冷轧堆染色机, 其进布装置配有中央退卷装置和张力调节装置,以此保证织物均匀平稳地进入轧车,织物在通过轧车后经导辊被送至打卷装置,针织物在A型架上打卷, 随布卷增大,A型架由初始位置恒速背离轧辊前行。

This system ensures that winding takes place at a constant tension throughout the batching process and avoids any squeezing action on the knitted fabric. Subsequent to padding, the fabric is rotated for a recommended no. of hours and then washed in a Trikoflex wash range.

该系统保证了整个打卷过程的恒张力卷取,避免了针织物被挤压。轧染后,织物在工作站转动一定小时,然后由Trikoflex水洗机作水洗。


Photo 1: Cold Pad Batch dyeing centre for knit goods 图片1:针织物用冷轧堆染色机组

6. Washing range for post treatment of reactive dyed or printed fabrics:

活性染料染色或印花后水洗设备

The range (Picture 3) generally comprises of a suitable entry (as already described) followed by one or two Trikoflex washers for the initial rinsing and thorough removal of unfixed / hydrolysed dyestuff. At the heart of the Trikoflex washing system is a grooved drum. The drum surface has a grooved profile with a mesh covering. As the fabric passes through the spray section, it is supported by the drum surface and is thus unable to avoid the hydrodynamic water pressure. The penetrating washing liquor results in a liquor film on both sides of the fabric. This facilitates the quick removal of impurities. Simultaneously, a cleaning effect is created within the mesh. The washing effect is increased considerably compared to the standard mesh and screen drum systems [2].

该水洗设备(如图3所示)一般由合适的进布装置(如前所述)及后面的一至二个Trikoflex水洗单元组成,织物经初洗再被彻底清除浮色或水解了的染料。Trikoflex水洗系统的心脏是带沟槽的转鼓,此转鼓表面有一沟槽型材,外包一网罩。当织物通过喷淋区时,织物受转鼓支托以避免水的流体压力。这种穿透式的水液能在织物正反面均形成水洗,从而迅速地清除杂质。同时,网罩内也形成自清洁效果。与常规的网罩和筛网转鼓系统相比,这种沟槽式转鼓大大增加了水洗效果[2]。

A dwell unit for soaping and other processes follows the initial washing compartments. Final rinsing and neutralisation are repeated in the subsequent Trikoflex washing compartments.

初水洗区后的堆置单元可用作皂洗和其他整理,后面的Trikoflex水洗机再重复清洗和中和。


Picture 3: Post treatment range for reactive dyed or printed fabrics

图3:活性染料染色或印花后处理设备

7. Pre- washing plants for oil extraction and shrinking 用于去油及布缩的预水洗机

In addition, the Trikoflex washing unit can be utilised to pre-wash crease sensitive fabrics such as cotton elastane, wool elastane, 100% polyamide, 100% polyester etc. The main reason for pre-washing is to remove the preparaon oils before the fabric is heat set. The Trikoflex washing compartments can either be laid out separately or immediately in front of the stenter for the removal of preparation oils (picture 4).

另外,Trikoflex水洗机可用于棉弹、毛弹,100%锦、100%涤等极易起皱产品的预水洗,它主要是在织物热定型之前去除布上的所有油污。水洗机可单独排列,也可放置在定型机正前(图4)。


Picture 4 : Pre-washing range in front of a stenter 图4 (定型机前的预水洗机)

8. BEN – CONTROL电气控制系统

Benninger has successfully been using a ratio drive in mercerizing machines for processing knitted fabrics since 1977. This technique was first realised for woven fabrics on the BEN -DIMENSA in 1987. Since then there are more than 150 successfully operating installations. Based on these experiences, low tension washing of knitted fabrics posed a new challenge. This knowledge has been integrated into Benninger’s concept for knitted goods

贝宁格自1977年成功地将速比控制原理应用于针织物丝光机上,并于1987年将此技术第一次实现于机织物丝光机,自此已有150多台这样的丝光机成功地投入实际生产。在这些应用经验基础上,针织物低张力水洗机接受了新的考验,这一技术也被结合应用到贝宁格针织物染整理设备中。

9. Prospects展望

The call for specific machine concepts for continuous open width processing of knitted goods is growing louder. These should cover the entire finishing field, from pre-treatment through to dyeing. Benninger’s Trikoflex concept for knitted fabrics fulfils this demand. If combined with the BEN- DIMENSA, Benninger’s machine concepts meet the highest possible quality requirements for modern knitted fabrics. In addition it must be mentioned that apart from the improved quality , open width finishing , as opposed to the classical rope form treatment by exhaust methods also promises lower variable production costs of 10 – 15 %.

用特别设计的设备连续平幅整理针织物的呼声正日益高涨,这些设备应涵盖整个整理工序,从前处理到染色。贝宁格Trikoflex概念就满足了针织物的这一要求,将它与贝宁格BEN-DIMENSA丝光概念结合起来,贝宁格丝光机就能满足现代针织物可以达到的最高质量要求。而且须指出的是,除改善质量外,相对于传统的绳状浸染方式,平幅整理还能保证使各类生产成本降低10-15%

10. Source literature参考文献

[1]A. Tanner, Wirtschaftliches Mercerisieren von Maschenware, Melliand Textilberichte (Oktober/1995),

S900- 901

[2]H. Hülsewig, Textilpraxis International (Juli 1991), S 659