作者:瑞士贝宁格公司Benninger AG

J. Str?hle,C.N. Guruprasad, H.Gehrlein

9240 Uzwil / Switzerland

New Development in Open Width Processing of Knitted goods


1 Summary概述

Benninger can now satisfy the ever changing demands of the fashion industry and of quality conscious customers by being able to offer suitable machinery for the open width processing of knitted fabrics which ensure high quality with minimal or no defects. Today Benninger offers four main lines for open width processing of knitted goods. Open width washing plants, open width bleaching plants, open width mercerizing plants and open width dyeing centres for cold pad batch dyeing


2 Introduction前言

The world-wide demand for knit goods is growing. Knitted fabrics are increasingly being used for outer and underwear and are also enjoying greater acceptance amongst various consumers. The very fact that knitted fabrics are being used for outerwear explains the higher demands placed on the quality as well as the appearance of the fabrics in order to meet the ever-changing fashion trends.


Although most processing of knitted fabrics today is carried out in tubular form, the need to process in the open width form is becoming increasingly necessary in order to satisfy the quality requirements. This article deals with the various machine concepts being offered by Benninger for the open width processing of knitted fabrics.


3. Pre-treatment of cotton and blends. 纯棉及其混纺织物的前处理

In order to achieve a high quality fabric, a thorough preparation to improve its absorbency as well as whiteness is in most cases imperative. In view of this, the pre-treatment assumes great importance and is the primary step. A typical machine layout for pre-treatment of 100%cotton, as well as cotton and elastane blends, is shown in picture 1.


Picture 1: Pre- treatment range 图1:前处理机

Generally a range is comprised of a suitable entry followed by a pre-washing zone. Here, spinning oils as well as the other impurities present in the grey knitted fabric are thoroughly washed out and removed.


Subsequent to the pre-washing zone, impregnation of the fabric with scouring and bleaching chemicals takes place. Thereafter steaming occurs in a steamer specially executed for knitted fabrics which is followed by series of washers. Then finally neutralization and rinsing takes place before the fabric reaches the outlet.


Knitted fabrics are extremely sensitive to tension and therefore require careful handling during processing. This means that tensions exerted by the machinery on the fabric must be kept to a minimum. This is the reason for the special design of the entry to the range which consists of a centre driven unwinding arrangement. The unwinding tension on the fabric is independent to the size of the batch. The fabric enters the pre-washing zone with a constant low tension which is maintained throughout the process.


The pre-washing zone includes one or more Trikoflex washers depending on the production and speed of the machine. Demineralization chemicals can be introduced in the pre-washing zone to remove loose metals and residual iron left over from the knitting process. There are two methods of demineralization.


–Demineralization in the Trikoflex washing compartment at 60°C to 80°C for approx. 30 to 60


–Impregnation with demineralization chemicals followed by a small reaction chamber at room

temperature for 5 min.

–在Trikoflex转鼓水洗机中以60°C to 80°C热水洗30至60秒


The impregnation with scouring and bleaching chemicals is carried out in a small Trikoflex LT-S impregnation chamber followed by steaming in a specially designed steamer containing a roller bed dwelling zone. The fabric is passed, in a so-called free run, through a steam lock into the steamer and is immediately brought up to the reaction temperature. A folding mechanism plaits the fabric onto the roller bed. Depositing and draw off during the entire process occurs under stable pre-defined conditions.

浸渍煮练剂和漂白剂可在小的Trikoflex LT-S浸渍槽内进行。然后在经特别设计的汽蒸箱的辊床上堆置汽蒸。织物经一段自由布段后从汽封口进入蒸箱,并被迅速加热到反应温度。折布装置将织物有序地堆置于辊床上,在整个汽蒸过程中织物放下和提起均在预先设定的状态下稳定进行。

Each chemical has a station consisting of a feed pump, inductive flow meter and control valve. This ensures the reproducibility of chemical quantities.


The concentrated chemicals are fed into the circulation pipe of the Trikoflex LT-S, where by thorough mixing is effected. The set point is calculated according to the recipe entered (ml chemicals / kg fabric) and depends on the fabric flow (running meter weight x speed).

具有一定浓度的化学助剂被送入Trikoflex LT-S 的循环管内,在这里被充分有效地混合。送液量根据输入的工艺配方计算出来(毫升助剂公斤织物), 它取决于织物流量 (单位米克重X实际车速)。

4. Open width mercerizing range for mercerization of cotton and cotton elastic blends


Due to its versatile design, the Benninger mercerizing machine BEN-DIMENSA masters the special structure, load and tension instability of knitted fabrics brilliantly, so much so that even single jersey fabrics can be run on the BEN-DIMENSA without any problems. The machine has a specialized entry system (as described under Pre-treatment). The low tension and gentle treatment is also ensured by the ratio metered AC drive. Each drive position can be adjusted up or down by 20%.

由于其多功能的设计,贝宁格丝光机BEN-DIMENSA能极佳地控制住针织物特有的结构、张力及伸长方面的波动, 即使是单面针织物也可在贝宁格丝光机上毫无问题地运行。该机具有特别的进布系统(如前处理机中描述的)。其速比控制的交流传动系统也确保了低张力和轻柔处理。每一个马达位置均可上下调速20%。

The fabrics are impregnated in a short impregnating zone followed by dwelling in the chainless

section of the machine. A minimum tension is exerted on the fabric during transportation in the chainless dwelling zone. The tension is controlled by the ratio metered AC drives located at the fabric transportation drums. The dwelling zone is followed by a vertical return pin chain / stenter section, where the fabric is uniformly stretched during the gradual removal of the caustic content. This means an initial stabilization of the fabric already begins in the chain zone followed by further stabilization in the chainless section of the machine. Fabrics stabilized in this manner are subsequently washed and neutralised in Trikoflex washing compartment.


The combination of the chain and chainless principles ensure the dimensional stability of the knitted fabric. The dimensions set during the processing are fixed and memorised permanently. The results after mercerising on the BEN -DIMENSA are representative of the final product and any deviation can be corrected immediately in the stenter frame.


The advantages of open width mercerising of knitted fabrics using the Ben-Dimensa are [1]:

–Constant stitch counts

–No differences in the number of wales over width

–Controllable lengthening up to +15% and shrinkage up to -10%




–可控制伸长达+15%或超喂收缩达 -10%

Further, stitch thickening in the selvedge zones, which cause dark selvedges leading to quality loss and even rejects, are overcome in the BEN-DIMENSA as

–the lye in the selvedge is methodically extracted

–the fabric is positively guided throughout the stabilizing zone




Picture 2 : BEN – DIMENSA Mercerizing range for knitwear 图2:贝宁格针织物丝光机

5. Bicoflex dye padder for cold pad batch dyeing of open width knitted fabrics.


The range depicted on the following photograph (Photo 1) comprises of a suitable entry unit provided with centrally driven unwinding unit as well as tension adjusting elements that ensure an even supply of fabric into the padder. The fabric, after having passed through the padder, is transported via feeding rollers to the batching system. Knitted fabrics are batched on an ‘A’ frame that is constantly moved away from its initial position opposite the padder in relation to the fabric build up on the batch roller.

下面图片所示的是冷轧堆染色机, 其进布装置配有中央退卷装置和张力调节装置,以此保证织物均匀平稳地进入轧车,织物在通过轧车后经导辊被送至打卷装置,针织物在A型架上打卷, 随布卷增大,A型架由初始位置恒速背离轧辊前行。

This system ensures that winding takes place at a constant tension throughout the batching process and avoids any squeezing action on the knitted fabric. Subsequent to padding, the fabric is rotated for a recommended no. of hours and then washed in a Trikoflex wash range.


Photo 1: Cold Pad Batch dyeing centre for knit goods 图片1:针织物用冷轧堆染色机组

6. Washing range for post treatment of reactive dyed or printed fabrics:


The range (Picture 3) generally comprises of a suitable entry (as already described) followed by one or two Trikoflex washers for the initial rinsing and thorough removal of unfixed / hydrolysed dyestuff. At the heart of the Trikoflex washing system is a grooved drum. The drum surface has a grooved profile with a mesh covering. As the fabric passes through the spray section, it is supported by the drum surface and is thus unable to avoid the hydrodynamic water pressure. The penetrating washing liquor results in a liquor film on both sides of the fabric. This facilitates the quick removal of impurities. Simultaneously, a cleaning effect is created within the mesh. The washing effect is increased considerably compared to the standard mesh and screen drum systems [2].


A dwell unit for soaping and other processes follows the initial washing compartments. Final rinsing and neutralisation are repeated in the subsequent Trikoflex washing compartments.


Picture 3: Post treatment range for reactive dyed or printed fabrics


7. Pre- washing plants for oil extraction and shrinking 用于去油及布缩的预水洗机

In addition, the Trikoflex washing unit can be utilised to pre-wash crease sensitive fabrics such as cotton elastane, wool elastane, 100% polyamide, 100% polyester etc. The main reason for pre-washing is to remove the preparaon oils before the fabric is heat set. The Trikoflex washing compartments can either be laid out separately or immediately in front of the stenter for the removal of preparation oils (picture 4).


Picture 4 : Pre-washing range in front of a stenter 图4 (定型机前的预水洗机)

8. BEN – CONTROL电气控制系统

Benninger has successfully been using a ratio drive in mercerizing machines for processing knitted fabrics since 1977. This technique was first realised for woven fabrics on the BEN -DIMENSA in 1987. Since then there are more than 150 successfully operating installations. Based on these experiences, low tension washing of knitted fabrics posed a new challenge. This knowledge has been integrated into Benninger’s concept for knitted goods


9. Prospects展望

The call for specific machine concepts for continuous open width processing of knitted goods is growing louder. These should cover the entire finishing field, from pre-treatment through to dyeing. Benninger’s Trikoflex concept for knitted fabrics fulfils this demand. If combined with the BEN- DIMENSA, Benninger’s machine concepts meet the highest possible quality requirements for modern knitted fabrics. In addition it must be mentioned that apart from the improved quality , open width finishing , as opposed to the classical rope form treatment by exhaust methods also promises lower variable production costs of 10 – 15 %.


10. Source literature参考文献

[1]A. Tanner, Wirtschaftliches Mercerisieren von Maschenware, Melliand Textilberichte (Oktober/1995),

S900- 901

[2]H. Hülsewig, Textilpraxis International (Juli 1991), S 659